Practical Guide to Measuring Wetland Carbon Pools and Fluxes 

Sheel Bansal
Irena Creed
Brian Tangen
Scott Bridgham
Ankur Desai
Ken Krauss
Scott Neubauer
Gregory Noe
Donald Rosenberry
Carl Trettin
Kimberly Wickland
Scott Allen
Ariane Arias‑Ortiz
Anna Armitage
Dennis Baldocchi
Kakoli Banerjee
David Bastviken
Peter Berg
Matthew Bogard
Alex Chow
William Conner
Christopher Craft
Courtney Creamer
Tonya DelSontro
Jamie Duberstein
Meagan Eagle
Siobhan Fennessy
Sarah Finkelstein
Mathias Göckede
Sabine Grunwald
Meghan Halabisky
Ellen Herbert
Mohammad Jahangir
Olivia Johnson
Miriam Jones
Jefrey Kelleway
Sara Knox
Kevin Kroeger
Kevin Kuehn
David Lobb
Amanda Loder
Shizhou Ma
Damien Maher
Gavin McNicol
Jacob Meier
Beth Middleton
Christopher Mills
Purbasha Mistry
Abhijit Mitra
Courtney Mobilian
Charles Schutte
Changchun Song
Camille Stagg
Jessica Turner
Rodrigo Vargas
Mark Waldrop
Marcus Wallin
Zhaohui Aleck Wang
Eric Ward
Debra Willard
Stephanie Yarwood
Xiaoyan Zhu
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Wetlands cover a small portion of the world, but have disproportionate influence on global carbon (C) sequestration, carbon dioxide and methane emissions, and aquatic C fluxes. However, the underlying biogeochemical processes that affect wetland C pools and fluxes are complex and dynamic, making measurements of wetland C challenging. Over decades of research, many observational, experimental, and analytical approaches have been developed to understand and quantify pools and fluxes of wetland C. Sampling approaches range in their representation of wetland C from short to long timeframes and local to landscape spatial scales. This review summarizes common and cutting-edge methodological approaches for quantifying wetland C pools and fluxes. We first define each of the major C pools and fluxes and provide rationale for their importance to wetland C dynamics. For each approach, we clarify what component of wetland C is measured and its spatial and temporal representativeness and constraints. We describe practical considerations for each approach, such as where and when an approach is typically used, who can conduct the measurements (expertise, training requirements), and how approaches are conducted, including considerations on equipment complexity and costs. Finally, we review key covariates and ancillary measurements that enhance the interpretation of findings and facilitate model development. The protocols that we describe to measure soil, water, vegetation, and gases are also relevant for related disciplines such as ecology. Improved quality and consistency of data collection and reporting across studies will help reduce global uncertainties and develop management strategies to use wetlands as nature-based climate solutions.