Planting is a highly reliable method to ensure the establishment of target species at desired densities on reclaimed sites. It allows direct control over the species, spacing and timing of regeneration. Nursery stock are also generally more robust to competition and challenging environmental conditions than naturally regenerated or seeded plants. In general, planting programs can achieve significantly higher survival of target tree species compared with seeding or natural regeneration. In some cases, survival may be as high as 80% by 10 years after planting.